- Radicalization in South Asia | SAGE Publications Inc
- The Rise of Extremism in South Asia: a Comparative Analysis
- Combating Violent Extremism and Terrorism in South Asia
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Overall, women performed 32 per cent of all recorded searches. Implementing Gender Provisions:. National Action Plan on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism in the Philippines — The role of women in conflict prevention, peacemaking and peacebuilding is a foundational consideration of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. Through consultation workshops organized in partnership with the government of Philippines. Women on the Outside: The female spouses of men incarcerated for terrorism in the Philippines. The research found that common problems existed within the families, including psychosocial and socio-economic vulnerabilities, a lack of access to justice, and no gender-sensitive religious or other platforms for support.
The research reported here examines why and how radicalisation to violence occurs from a gender perspective. This policy brief analyses the underexplored relationship between attitudes and practices indicating misogyny and support for violent extremism. There are now ten Peace Villages across Indonesia, and the idea continues to spread. Women play diverse roles and are leaders in their families and communities in preventing violent extremism.
PVE Programme's Brief. Through the programme, UN Women is working with women at the community level to support their empowerment as a key strategy for building social cohesion UN Women HQ. Asia and the Pacific. Open Menu. Preventing Violent Extremism.
Radicalization in South Asia | SAGE Publications Inc
The main message is acceptance of diversity and peaceful co-existence within the community. The actors are community people who develop theatre acts with social messages. They can make peace. Share Print. JI members took part in ethnic and religious conflicts in Indonesia and helped plan terrorist attacks in Singapore. The organization caught international attention after a terrorist bombing on the holiday island of Bali in that killed people and wounded another , most of them foreigners. JI has also been named responsible for organizing a series of terrorist attacks in Indonesia from to , most notably bombings at the J.
JI also took part in preparing and organizing terrorist attacks in the South Philippines together with the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group. Since , it has had a special unit of political assassins that targets prominent politicians, judges, police and military officers who take part in counter-terrorist operations.
At present, JI is split into two factions, one which continues to carry out terrorist activities and the other, which focuses on religious preaching. Both, however, have the goal of creating a Sharia state in Indonesia. They also share radical Salafi Islam ideology.
Until his arrest in , the spiritual leader of JI was the organization's founder and the father of Indonesian Salafi extremism Abu Bakar Bashir. In , he co-founded the Pesantren Al-Mukmin religious school with Abdullah Sungkar, where he preached Salafi Islam and political extremism in the spirit of the Dar al-Islam movement, of which he was a member.
Many graduates of that school later joined the ranks of JI, which was created by Abu Bashir in the early s during his exile in Malaysia.
He joined the jihad after returning to Indonesia after the fall of the Suharto regime. Abu Bashir was convicted of masterminding the explosion at the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta in , but spent just one-and-a-half years in prison. He was again indicted of organizing a jihadist military camp in Aceh in He is currently serving a year sentence, but this has not prevented him from releasing a video from prison pledging his allegiance to the Islamic State.
An influential figure in JI until his arrest in Thailand in was Riduan Isamuddin, also known as Hambali, who is responsible for carrying out military operations and planning major terrorist attacks. He received his military training in Afghanistan, where he fought on the side of the mujahidin in the s. He acted as a liaison man with al-Qaeda, being its head of operations in East Asia. He was also in charge of distributing funds from al-Qaeda. He is currently a prisoner in Guantanamo.
The majority of JI leaders were either seized or killed by Indonesia's Detachment 88 counter-terror squad. Zarkasih, who was appointed emir of JI after the arrest of Hambali, was arrested in Its top leaders also included the most wanted terrorists in Southeast Asia: Azahari Husin killed in a clash with police in and Noordin Mohammad Top killed in , who were both originally from Malaysia. Azahari Husin, a British-trained engineer, was the chief explosives expert.
Mohammad Top, a former accountant, was behind the — terrorist attacks in Jakarta and the attacks in Bali.
The Rise of Extremism in South Asia: a Comparative Analysis
Several former JI leaders, such as Malaysian extremist and Afghan war veteran Nasir Abbas, renounced violence and even started helping the Indonesian and Malaysian authorities track down and arrest terrorists. Social Base. In the early s, JI had more than members. Today, that figure has shrunk to They are radical Muslims who consider themselves to be victims of a global anti-Islamic conspiracy led by the United States and its allies Australia, Great Britain and Israel.
The nucleus of the group are Islamic extremists who fought in Afghanistan in — Once out of the combat zone, they continued their jihadist activities in Indonesia and neighbouring Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines. These veterans recruit and indoctrinate new members, mainly from areas of ethnic and religious strife. New members and supporters of JI are sent to special courses, typically at Salafi pesantrens, where they are indoctrinated in radical Islam ideology, as well as to military training camps.
A major role in uniting the organization is played by family and kinship links that go beyond Indonesia and spread to Malaysia and Singapore, thus strengthening JI's regional contacts.
JI militants are recruited in various ways: through preaching at mosques; indoctrinating students at madrasas and religious boarding schools; disseminating jihadist literature; and through local radical groups and social networks. JI Structure. The governing system is strictly hierarchical. At the top of JI stands the emir. Four councils answer to the emir — the managing, religious and disciplinary councils, and the council that issues fatwas. JI has divided the whole country and Southeast Asia into territorial zones called mantiks. Each mantik has several underground terrorist cells of four to five people forming a hierarchical structure.
The cells are usually led by the disciples of the JI founders or Afghan war veterans who fought on the side of the mujahidin. The second level are field commanders and the lowest level are the fighters who are sometimes recruited to carry out one-off terrorist attacks. These are usually young men trained at Islamic schools linked to Dar al-Islam.
JI is currently decentralized because of the internal split and the loss of its leaders as a result of arrests or death.
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It has split into individual mantiks and cells, which can operate independently of one another, thus making counter-terrorist operations against them more difficult. The network-style character of JI makes it easy to compensate the losses caused by police actions. Its main group, Mantik II, has switched its activities from large-scale terrorist attacks on foreign citizens to pinpoint attacks on important local facilities.
While sticking to the jihad idea, JI today recognizes the need to fortify its preaching mission to broaden its social base in Muslim communities and recruit new members. Links with Other Terrorist Organizations. These links are not formal or organized and are based on personal relationships struck up during spells in Afghanistan, at training camps in Pakistan, on Mindanao, etc.
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What they share with JI is the main goal of creating an Islamic state in Southeast Asia as part of the single worldwide Islamic Caliphate. In spite of the international actions to freeze the assets of terrorist organizations, JI is still capable of supporting its activities financially thanks to the money coming from various Islamic funds in the Middle East and individual donors such as Ali Khelaiv Abdudah and Muhammad Jibril, contributions made by its supporters and members, as well as money allocated by al-Qaeda , which has set up its "investment" base in the region.
Without the support of this international terrorist structure, JI would have ceased to exist. Because of the difficulties that have arisen in recent years in drawing support from international sources, JI has been enlisting criminal sources to finance its cells. Smugglers and pirates help to deliver weapons to Indonesia. History of formation.
Combating Violent Extremism and Terrorism in South Asia
Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid, a breakaway group from JI , has become the new political face of the jihadists. It was declared a terrorist organization by the U. Department of State and the United Nations in These branches do not form a hierarchy and do not report to Abu Bashir. The organization has between and members and is open to anyone who wants to see a Caliphate created in Indonesia and shares the Salafist—Jihadist ideology.
JAT declares that violence used for these purposes is justified by religion if it is directed against the enemies of Islam and apostates, among which it counts Indonesian judges, prosecutors, police and, outside the country, the United States. JAT rejects democracy, liberalism, secularism, socialism and communism.
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Its activities, apart from struggling to create an Islamic Sharia state, are aimed at reviving the Islamic movement in Indonesia by holding public seminars and rallies, publishing books and spreading information via the media. It has become the kingpin of the Jihadist movement in the country.
JAT has claimed responsibility for several major terrorist attacks since , including the murder of police officers, suicide bombings in Cirebon and Solo, and blowing up a boarding school in Bima link in Indonesian. Laskar 99 has been recruiting new fighters, including suicide bombers. The organization's spiritual leader is thought to be its founder, Abu Bakar Bashir, who, despite serving a year prison sentence for organizing a militant training camp in Aceh, continues to be JAT's chief ideologist. After his arrest in , the organization's head became Muhammad Akhvan , who was sentenced to 15 years back in for blowing up a Hindu temple on Java.